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Monday, 30 May 2011

More About Bone Cancer

Monday, 30 May 2011

In a human body about 206 bones are performed numerous types of functions. These bones represent to the body structure which facilitates in making into a proper shape to the human body. Without bones it could not be possible to walk, sit, stand or move because your body would depends upon soft tissues based muscles. Furthermore bones play a very important role in protecting the fragile organs of the body. For example, the skull’s bones give safety to the brain, the bones of ribs give protection to heart and lungs, and in the same direction the bones of vertebrae of spine protect the spinal cord. Lastly bones provide help to control the collection containing different proteins, nutrients, calcium and phosphorus. 

Bone Cancer: 
The major cause of bone cancer is the imbalanced growth of the bone cells. Primary bone cancer starts from the bone while the secondary cancer scatters to the bone from different parts of the body.  Bone cancer is categorized into four types such as Osteosarcoma, Ewing Sarcoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma and chondrosarcoma. However the handout illustrates only about primary bone cancer.

Osteosarcoma – this type of bone cancer is existed on a large scale. It may affects to the teenagers and young adults but it could be occurred at any age duration. It commonly appears in the lower thighs, shins and upper areas of arms.

Ewing's sarcoma – this type of bone cancer is also affects to the teenagers and youngsters.  It mostly diagnoses in the pelvis, thighs or shins but it may arise in the flexible tissues of the body.

Chondrosarcoma – this type of bone cancer is more common in mature adults of above 40 years. It begins in the cartilage cells of joints. It also rises in the bones of the thighs, pelvis, ribs, upper arms or shoulder joints.

Spindle cell sarcoma – this type of bone cancer is changed into four other types – malignant fibrous, histiocytoma, fibrosarcoma and leiomyosarcoma and is also common in adults of above 40 years. it is closed to the type of Osteosarcoma and usually develops in the area of lower thighs, shins, knees or arms.

Almost 2650 cases of bone cancer were registered in which at least 1460 deaths were made in America in 2010.

The symptoms of bone cancer depend on the affected area of cancer and its rigorousness.  However in children, it can be flawed for increasing pains and in adults it can be faulted for arthritis. The pain becomes more severe during night time. As the cancer mounts, swelling on affected area is also grown and the movements of joints becomes very difficult.  

The common symptoms of bone cancer are:
Fever or night sweats,
Weight loss

Age factor – Bone cancer is mostly common in youngsters especially when the bones are developing.

Radiotherapy – previous experience of making radiotherapy is enhanced the risk of having bone cancer at the affected area.

Chemotherapy – the risk is also grown depending on the used dose of anti-cancer medicine.
Paget’s disease – this disease ruins the bones by making them brittle and creating pain and fractures. Almost one in 10% people is diagnosed with bone cancer due to Paget’s disease.

Past benign bone cancer – if someone had a non-scattering type of bone cancer then the chances of developing chondrosarcoma would be increased.

Genetics – having an unusual inborn condition, like Li-Fraumeni syndrome, retinoblastoma or Rothmund Thompson syndrome makes someone more probably to create osteosarcoma.

Bone cancer is mostly diagnosed by the X-Ray,
Scans include ultrasounds, MRI or CT scans. MRI or CT can show how much of bone area is affected.

Bone scans – in this method a small amount of risk free radioactive dye is injected into the vein. This collects in the affected area of cancer and picked up by the scan.

Biopsy – in this procedure an affected cell or part is removed and sent to the lab’s test. This procedure is known core needle biopsy and is performed under local Anaesthesia. Treatment:

The treatment option is adopted by the doctors after a thorough case study of a patient in which it is examined the affected area of cancer, age factor, genetics and general health problems. However there are three main treatments are existed for bone cancer.

Surgery – it is done under the chemotherapy or radiotherapy treatment and making sure that all the cancer affected cells are wiped out completely.

Limb-Sparing surgery – in this method a cancer affected bone or joint is replaced with a metal prosthesis (artificial) or a healthy piece of bone. Limb-Sparing surgery is becoming more common during this time.

Amputation of the affected limb – amputating is the only solution of eliminating the cancer, when cancer spread out into the nearer soft tissues or blood vessels.

Non-Surgical treatments:
Chemotherapy – anti cancer drugs are injected into a vein and sometimes these drugs (in the forms of tablets) are used to destroy the cancer cells. It is effective for osteosarcoma and Ewing’s sarcoma. Also these drugs generally shrink the cancer affected area for removing. If the cancer is placed on a difficult area then Radiation is used to destroy the cancer cells.

Living with Bone Cancer:
A person, who has got rid of from bone cancer, certainly he will have to go to the doctor permanently for a proper check up. He will have to focus the cancer symptoms.



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